Thursday, March 19, 2020
Instituto de Defense Legal Ã¢â¬â Legal Defense Institute The mission of the Legal Defense Institute is to defend and promote human rights as a part of bringing peace to Peru and consolidating its democratic institutions. They work for the human rights of the people in their country and for peace. They also want to unify the democratic institutions, have active citizen participation and institute a rule of law. The organization has many reasons for their purposes. The IDL was founded in Peru in 1983 because of the emergence of general and permanent violence due to the Sendero Luminoso or Shining Path. The Shining Path is a radical political organization that used various terrorist methods against the government. In retaliation, the Peruvian government then started committing human rights violations against innocent citizens of Peru. The focus was mainly on farmers and people who lived in rural unpopulated areas of the country. Thousands of innocent people have been tortured, imprisoned, and murdered based upon assumptions made from the government. The IDLÃ¢â¬â¢s goals are to maintain citizen security, public order, and proper police function. The Legal Defense Institute uses a wide variety of methods to implement their plans. They use different legal and judicial activities. They offer legal defense and judicial information and counseling. They produce and propagate legislative proposals. They also send educational materials about their cause to judges, army and police forces, social organizations, academic audiences, and non-governmental organizations. They use education and communication activities for training citizens to be leaders for the cause in their communities. After these training seminars, participants conduct citizen campaigns to identify local concern and mobilize citizens to develop a common platform. Other means of education and communication are regional meetings, participation in the Peruvian Netw... Free Essays on Instituto De Defensa Legal Ã¢â¬â Legal Defense Institute Free Essays on Instituto De Defensa Legal Ã¢â¬â Legal Defense Institute Instituto de Defense Legal Ã¢â¬â Legal Defense Institute The mission of the Legal Defense Institute is to defend and promote human rights as a part of bringing peace to Peru and consolidating its democratic institutions. They work for the human rights of the people in their country and for peace. They also want to unify the democratic institutions, have active citizen participation and institute a rule of law. The organization has many reasons for their purposes. The IDL was founded in Peru in 1983 because of the emergence of general and permanent violence due to the Sendero Luminoso or Shining Path. The Shining Path is a radical political organization that used various terrorist methods against the government. In retaliation, the Peruvian government then started committing human rights violations against innocent citizens of Peru. The focus was mainly on farmers and people who lived in rural unpopulated areas of the country. Thousands of innocent people have been tortured, imprisoned, and murdered based upon assumptions made from the government. The IDLÃ¢â¬â¢s goals are to maintain citizen security, public order, and proper police function. The Legal Defense Institute uses a wide variety of methods to implement their plans. They use different legal and judicial activities. They offer legal defense and judicial information and counseling. They produce and propagate legislative proposals. They also send educational materials about their cause to judges, army and police forces, social organizations, academic audiences, and non-governmental organizations. They use education and communication activities for training citizens to be leaders for the cause in their communities. After these training seminars, participants conduct citizen campaigns to identify local concern and mobilize citizens to develop a common platform. Other means of education and communication are regional meetings, participation in the Peruvian Netw...
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
How to Make Font Size Bigger or Smaller on Your Screen When you encounter a screen with a font thats too small, you can easily adjust it with a few keyboard shortcuts, your browser, or settings within your computer. The steps you take vary depending on what kind of computer you are using, a Mac or PC. Both types of computers allow you to quickly change font size, but the keys you need to hit are different. Keyboard Shortcut for Zoom If youre using a PC, hold down the Ctrl key while also tapping the or - key. Youll find the Ctrl (which means control) key on the lower left-hand part of the keyboard to zoom in and out. The Ã and - keys are located near the top right-hand corner of the keyboard. These actions trigger a zoom function, that lets you enlarge the screen youre viewing (the sign) or zoom out using the - key. On a Mac, the function is similar, except youll use the Command key with the or - keys. The Command key usually says Command on it and displays a symbol such as Ã¢Å'Ë. Youll find it toward the bottomÃ left cornerÃ of the keyboard. The and - keys are near the top right-hand corner of the keyboard, similar to the configuration for the PC. The zoom functions work across a variety of platforms, including browsers and various software such as Microsoft Word and Adobe Creative Suite products. Windows Change Font Size Buttons You can also change the font size on your computer by using software commands. To change the font on your desktop or folders in Windows 10, Windows CentralÃ describes the process: Right-click on yourÃ desktop and select Display settings.Use the slider to change the size of the text. If you want to temporarily enlarge a portion of the screen, use the built-in magnifier, notes Windows Central. You canÃ quicklyÃ open it by using the keyboard shortcutÃ Windows key and the plus sign ()Ã to zoom in and minus sign (-) to zoom out. UseÃ Windows key and EscÃ to exit the magnifier. Mac Font Size Changes In order to increase the font size on your Mac, you can lower yourÃ computers resolution, change the size of the desktop icons, and increase the size of a sidebar size. From the main Apple menu, select System Preferences.Choose the Displays Menu.Choose the scaled button in the Resolution area.In the next window, select a lower resolution size. You can also change the font size for desktop icons by right-clicking on your desktop and choosing Show View Options. In the window that pops up, youll see options for icon size, grid spacing, text size, and label position. Use these controls to alter your screen view until it meets your needs. Browser Font Adjustment You can also adjust the font size in your browser: Firefox: Select tools - options - content - font, and color. Here, you can change the default font size for the browser. Note that some websites have their font size set and the browser canÃ¢â¬â¢t always change it.Safari: From the Safari menu, choose Preferences. Under the advanced tab look for the accessibility section and click the button for Never use font sizes smaller than and choose the font size that best meets your needs.Internet Explorer: Select menu - view - text size. Or, depending on the version, there may be a slider in the bottom right corner you can move to increase the page size, much like zoom.Google Chrome: From the Chrome menu, choose Preferences. This will open a settings window. Scroll down to the Appearance section, find the font size drop-down menu and choose your font size, which ranges from very small to very large. Source Guim, Mark. How to make text, apps, and other items bigger in Windows 10. Windows Central, August 18, 2015.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Theories of Human Rights - Term Paper Example The problem with the Act stems from the way it was passed into law. The Act was formulated forty-five days after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack. Besides the short period it took to formulate, Congress was given limited time to read and debate the bill. In fact, there are fears that many members of congress did not have enough time to read the document and as such, they might have passed it into law flawed. The hasty way in which this Act was formulated and passed could have been because of fear for another terrorist attack. Even so, it could also have been used as an avenue to infuse it with undeserved provisions benefitting the government. This hastiness served to entrench the secret ways in which the government uses the ActÃ¢â¬â¢s allowances (Smith & Li-Ching 23). There have been cases reported about FBI agents breaking into and searching peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s homes without notice. The violations of rights by the Patriot Act are complicated. Targets of FISA surveillance are not furnished with the contents of the court order that led to their arrest and as such, they lack the grounds to challenge wiretaps and searches done illegally. This contrasts significantly with a defendant prosecuted under the criminal investigative authority of the government who would be furnished with a copy of the court order. Proponents of the Patriot Act move that as the commander-in-chief, the president should use any means to protect the country from attacks. This argument downplays the fact that the president and the executive are not above the law and the Constitution (Smith & Li-Ching 24). The means they use to protect the country from attacks are supposed to be constrained by the constitution. Following the subtle implications of Section 218, it is possible that some people who are thought to be against government policies or who are related to foreign powers are unfairly searched and
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Internal weaknesses that impacted the Islamic Societies during the Crudades and Mongol Wars - Essay Example Even though the early crusades were named and were quite successful in realizing the desired objectives, majority of the crusades that took place in the later years were ineffective and thus they were defeated by their counterparts, the Muslims. The Mongols on the other hand invaded Muslim land in the thirteenth century. They moved from one Islamic region to another slaughtering all the Muslims they came across. In just a single city, they slaughtered almost 2 million people. Such had immense effect on the locals in terms of their political power, economy, social life, culture, religion and population as explored in this paper. Soldiers in hundreds of thousands became crusaders through taking of vows, with the Pope granting these soldiers Plenary Indulgence. The emblem of the soldiers in the war was a cross, as the term crusade was derived from a French phrase, Ã¢â¬Å"taking the crossÃ¢â¬ . Most of the crusaders were from France, calling themselves Ã¢â¬ËFranksÃ¢â¬â¢ that eventually became a common term among the Muslims. By this time, Christianity was yet to divide into large numbers of intermingled geographical regions which later formed the eastern churches of Byzantine Orthodox and the Western Roman Catholic. The Crusaders just considered themselves as Christians but not as Muslims. They had immense impact on Middle East, and particularly to Islamic religion. Crusades Background Among the powers that medieval popes had was the ability of requesting the kings and monarchs to be provided with troops as well as money to facilitate what they deemed as holy wars, such as the Crusades. The Crusades were fought because of geopolitical, economic and religious conflicts between the Muslims and the Christians.3 The spark for the initial Crusade came in year 1095, at the time when the Byzantines within the European Christians for military assistance against Turks, and Seljuk who had recently captured the city of Jerusalem. In order to increase their chances of receiving more aid, Byzantines exaggerated the rumors of Holy Land atrocities from the Turkish people. Pope Urban II immediately responded by summoning of the Council of Clermont, calling upon the European Catholics knights to recapture the city of Jerusalem because of the religious value that they placed to the Holy Land. In 1096, an army of Crusaders traveled headed to the Middle East through Constantinople, fighting the Muslim forces that they encountered along the way. The army reached Jerusalem two years later, 1099. They placed the city under siege, and they butchered almost every single Jew and Muslim within the walls of th e City. In the process, the Crusaders massacred a significant number of Christians whom were mistaken for Muslims. Because of lack of unity among the Jews, Turks and Muslims, they suffered immense loss and defeat from the Crusaders.4 Crusades in Islamic Society Much of the most important works of histories of crusades are being published and the settlements that have been established within their wake are concerned with the 13th and the 14th Centuries, while the great vistas are providing an opening in the sixteenth centuries.5 The Crusades, which were launched upon the holy land of Middle East from Urban II Speech that took place in 1095 at the Council of Cl
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Coca Cola Performance Appraisal System Management Essay The Coca-Cola Company is the worlds largest manufacturer, distributor, and marketer of non-alcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups. Based in Atlanta, Georgia, KO sells concentrated forms of its beverages to bottlers, which produce, package, and sell the finished products to retailers. The Coca-Cola Company operates in over 200 countries and sells over 400 different products, including the world-famous Coca-Cola and Sprite lines of soft drinks. KO faces several challenges today. An increased consumer preference for healthier drinks has resulted in slowing growth rates for sales of carbonated soft drinks (abbreviated as CSD), which constitutes 74% of KOs sales. KOs profits are also vulnerable to the rising costs for the raw materials used to make drinks such as the corn syrup used as a sweetener, the aluminum used in cans, and the plastic used in bottles. Additionally, as food retailers continue consolidating, theyre gaining more power to negotiate for lower prices, decreasing KOs price flexibility. Despite these challenges, Coca-Cola has remained highly profitable. Though the non-CSD market is growing quickly, the traditional CSD market is still much larger in terms of both revenues and volume. The size and variety of KOs offerings in the CSD category, coupled with the unparalleled brand equity of the Coca-Cola trademark, has allowed KO to maintain its share of the large, high-margin CSD market. At the same time, KO has responded to consumers changing tastes and begun launching new, non-CSD alternatives. The Coca-Cola Company engages in the manufacture, distribution, and marketing of nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups worldwide. It principally offers sparkling and still beverages. The companys sparkling beverages include nonalcoholic ready-to-drink beverages with carbonation, such as energy drinks, and carbonated waters and flavored waters. Its still beverages consist of nonalcoholic beverages without carbonation, including non-carbonated waters, flavored waters and enhanced waters, juices and juice drinks, teas, coffees, and sports drinks. The Coca-Cola Company also offers fountain syrups, syrups, and concentrates, such as flavoring ingredients and sweeteners. The company markets its nonalcoholic beverages under the Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta, and Sprite brand names. The Coca-Cola Company also owns mineral water brands Kinley. The Coca-Cola Company, nourishing the global community with the worlds largest selling soft drink since 1886, returned to India in 1993 after a ga p of 16 years giving a new thumbs-up to the Indian Soft Drink Market. In the same year, the Company took over ownership of the nations top soft-drink brands and bottling network. No wonder, their brands have assumed an iconic status in the minds of the consumers. Coca-Cola serves in India some of the most recalled brands across the world including names such as Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Sprite, Fanta, Thumps Up, Limca, Maaza and Kinley (packaged drinking water). INTRODUCTION Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organizations most valued assets the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. It is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training. Objectives for performance appraisal policy can best be understood in terms of potential benefits Increase motivation to perform effectively. Increase staff self-esteem. Gain new insight into staff and supervisors. Better clarify and define job functions and responsibilities. Develop valuable communication among appraisal participants. Encourage increased self-understanding among staff as well as insight into the kind of development activities that are of value. Distribute rewards on a fair and credible basis. Clarify organizational goals so they can be more readily accepted. Improve institutional/departmental manpower planning, test validation, and development of training programs. Performance appraisal may be defined as a structured formal interaction between a subordinate and supervisor, that usually takes the form of a periodic interview (annual or semi-annual), in which the work performance of the subordinate is examined and discussed, with a view to identifying weaknesses and strengths as well as opportunities for improvement and skills development. In many organizations but not all appraisal results are used, either directly or indirectly, to help determine reward outcomes. That is, the appraisal results are used to identify the better performing employees who should get the majority of available merit pay increases, bonuses, and promotions. By the same token, appraisal results are used to identify the poorer performers who may require some form of counseling, or in extreme cases, demotion, dismissal or decreases in pay. (Organizations need to be aware of laws in their country that might restrict their capacity to dismiss employees or decrease pay). The Performance Appraisal System (PAS) is designed to improve overall organizational performance by encouraging a higher level of involvement and motivation and increased staff participation in the planning, delivery and evaluation of work. The system establishes a process for achieving responsibility and accountability in the execution of programmes approved by the General Assembly. It is based on linking individual work plans with those of departments and offices and entails setting goals, planning work in advance and providing ongoing feedback. An important function of the PAS is to promote communication between staff members and supervisors on the goals to be achieved and the basis on which individual performance will be assessed, encouraging teamwork in the process. OBJECTIVES To get familiar with cooperate world environment and culture. To learn how appraisals of a employee in the company is decide by managers. To learn the parameters seniors look while doing the appraisals. To see what are the factors, which decide how much appraisals, a particular should get. Who are the Peoples involved in appraisals system and who takes which decision? To understand the appraisals system and methodology for appraisals in Coca-Cola India. To get familiar with the work and duties of a Human Resource (HR) Manager. INDUSTRY PROFILE REVIEW OF LITERATURE ON THE INDUSTRY An industry analysis through Porters Five Forces reveals that market forces are favorable for profitability. Defining the industry Both concentrate producers (CP) and bottlers are profitable. These two parts of the industry are extremely interdependent, sharing costs in procurement, production, marketing and distribution. Many of their functions overlap; for instance, CPs do some bottling, and bottlers conduct many promotional activities. The industry is already vertically integrated to some extent. They also deal with similar suppliers and buyers. Entry into the industry would involve developing operations in either or both disciplines. Beverage substitutes would threaten both CPs and their associated bottlers. Because of operational overlap and similarities in their market environment, we can include both CPs and bottlers in our definition of the soft drink industry. In 1993, CPs earned 29% pretax profits on their sales, while bottlers earned 9% profits on their sales, for a total industry profitability of 14% (Exhibit 1). This industry as a whole generates positive economic profits. Rivalry Revenues are extremely concentrated in this industry, with Coke and Pepsi, together with their associated bottlers, commanding 73% of the case market in 1994. Adding in the next tier of soft drink companies, the top six controlled 89% of the market. In fact, one could characterize the soft drink market as an oligopoly, or even a duopoly between Coke and Pepsi, resulting in positive economic profits. To be sure, there was tough competition between Coke and Pepsi for market share, and this occasionally hampered profitability. For example, price wars resulted in weak brand loyalty and eroded margins for both companies in the 1980s. The Pepsi Challenge, meanwhile, affected market share without hampering per case profitability, as Pepsi was able to compete on attributes other than price. Substitutes: Through the early 1960s, soft drinks were synonymous with Ã¢â¬Å"colasÃ¢â¬ in the mind of consumers. Over time, however, other beverages, from bottled water to teas, became more popular, especially in the 1980s and 1990s. Coke and Pepsi responded by expanding their offerings, through alliances (e.g. Coke and Nestea), acquisitions (e.g. Coke and Minute Maid), and internal product innovation (e.g. Pepsi creating Orange Slice), capturing the value of increasingly popular substitutes internally. Proliferation in the number of brands did threaten the profitability of bottlers through 1986, as they more frequent line set-ups, increased capital investment, and development of special management skills for more complex manufacturing operations and distribution. Bottlers were able to overcome these operational challenges through consolidation to achieve economies of scale. Overall, because of the CPs efforts in diversification, however, substitutes became less of a threat. Power of Suppliers The inputs for Coke and Pepsis products were primarily sugar and packaging. Sugar could be purchased from many sources on the open market, and if sugar became too expensive, the firms could easily switch to corn syrup, as they did in the early 1980s. So suppliers of nutritive sweeteners did not have much bargaining power against Coke, Pepsi, or their bottlers. NutraSweet, meanwhile, had recently come off patent in 1992, and the soft drink industry gained another supplier, Holland Sweetener, which reduced Searles bargaining power and lowering the price of aspartame. With an abundant supply of inexpensive aluminum in the early 1990s and several can companies competing for contracts with bottlers, can suppliers had very little supplier power. Furthermore, Coke and Pepsi effectively further reduced the supplier of can makers by negotiating on behalf of their bottlers, thereby reducing the number of major contracts available to two. With more than two companies vying for these contracts, Coke and Pepsi were able to negotiate extremely favorable agreements. In the plastic bottle business, again there were more suppliers than major contracts, so direct negotiation by the CPs was again effective at reducing supplier power. Power of buyers The soft drink industry sold to consumers through five principal channels: food stores, convenience and gas, fountain, vending, and mass merchandisers Supermarkets, the principal customer for soft drink makers, were a highly fragmented industry. The stores counted on soft drinks to generate consumer traffic, so they needed Coke and Pepsi products. But due to their tremendous degree of fragmentation (the biggest chain made up 6% of food retail sales, and the largest chains controlled up to 25% of a region), these stores did not have much bargaining power. Their only power was control over premium shelf space, which could be allocated to Coke or Pepsi products. This power did give them some control over soft drink profitability. Furthermore, consumers expected to pay less through this channel, so prices were lower, resulting in somewhat lower profitability. National mass merchandising chains such as Wal-Mart, on the other hand, had much more bargaining power. While these stores did car ry both Coke and Pepsi products, they could negotiate more effectively due to their scale and the magnitude of their contracts. For this reason, the mass merchandiser channel was relatively less profitable for soft drink makers. The least profitable channel for soft drinks, however, was fountain sales. Profitability at these locations was so abysmal for Coke and Pepsi that they considered this channel Ã¢â¬Å"paid sampling.Ã¢â¬ This was because buyers at major fast food chains only needed to stock the products of one manufacturer, so they could negotiate for optimal pricing. Coke and Pepsi found these channels important, however, as an avenue to build brand recognition and loyalty, so they invested in the fountain equipment and cups that were used to serve their products at these outlets. As a result, while Coke and Pepsi gained only 5% margins, fast food chains made 75% gross margin on fountain drinks. Vending, meanwhile, was the most profitable channel for the soft drink industry. Essentially there were no buyers to bargain with at these locations, where Coke and Pepsi bottlers could sell directly to consumers through machines owned by bottlers. Property owners were paid a sales commission on Coke and Pepsi products sold through machines on their property, so their incentives were properly aligned with those of the soft drink makers, and prices remained high. The customer in this case was the consumer, who was generally limited on thirst quenching alternatives. The final channel to consider is convenience stores and gas stations. If Mobil or Seven-Eleven were to negotiate on behalf of its stations, it would be able to exert significant buyer power in transactions with Coke and Pepsi. Apparently, though, this was not the nature of the relationship between soft drink producers and this channel, where bottlers profits were relatively high, at $0.40 per case, in 1993. With this high profitability, it seems likely that Coke and Pepsi bottlers negotiated directly with convenience store and gas station owners. So the only buyers with dominant power were fast food outlets. Although these outlets captured most of the soft drink profitability in their channel, they accounted for less than 20% of total soft drink sales. Through other markets, however, the industry enjoyed substantial profitability because of limited buyer power. Barriers to Entry It would be nearly impossible for either a new CP or a new bottler to enter the industry. New CPs would need to overcome the tremendous marketing muscle and market presence of Coke, Pepsi, and a few others, who had established brand names that were as much as a century old. Through their DSD practices, these companies had intimate relationships with their retail channels and would be able to defend their positions effectively through discounting or other tactics. So, although the CP industry is not very capital intensive, other barriers would prevent entry. Entering bottling, meanwhile, would require substantial capital investment, which would deter entry. Further complicating entry into this market, existing bottlers had exclusive territories in which to distribute their products. Regulatory approval of intrabrand exclusive territories, via the Soft Drink Interbrand Competition Act of 1980, ratified this strategy, making it impossible for new bottlers to get started in any region wh ere an existing bottler operated, which included every significant market in the US. In conclusion, an industry analysis by Porters Five Forces reveals that the soft drink industry in 1994 was favorable for positive economic profitability, as evidenced in companies financial outcomes. MAJOR COMPANIES In India there are only two major companies Hindustan Coca Cola Beverages Private Ltd. Pepsi Co. Hindustan Coca Cola Beverages Private Ltd. The Coca-Cola Company engages in the manufacture, distribution, and marketing of nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups worldwide. It principally offers sparkling and still beverages. The companys sparkling beverages include nonalcoholic ready-to-drink beverages with carbonation, such as energy drinks, and carbonated waters and flavored waters. Its still beverages consist of nonalcoholic beverages without carbonation, including non-carbonated waters, flavored waters and enhanced waters, juices and juice drinks, teas, coffees, and sports drinks. The Coca-Cola Company also offers fountain syrups, syrups, and concentrates, such as flavoring ingredients and sweeteners. The company markets its nonalcoholic beverages under the Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta, and Sprite brand names. The Coca-Cola Company also owns mineral water brands Kinley. The Coca-Cola Company, nourishing the global community with the worlds largest selling soft drink since 1886, returned to India in 1993 after a ga p of 16 years giving a new thumbs-up to the Indian Soft Drink Market. In the same year, the Company took over ownership of the nations top soft-drink brands and bottling network. No wonder, their brands have assumed an iconic status in the minds of the consumers. Coca-Cola serves in India some of the most recalled brands across the world including names such as Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Sprite, Fanta, Thumps Up, Limca, Maaza and Kinley (packaged drinking water). PEPSI Co. PepsiCo is a world leader in convenience foods and beverages, with 2007 revenues of more than $39 billion and more than 185,000 employees across the world. Its world renowned brands are available in nearly 200 countries and territories. PepsiCo entered India in 1989 and has grown to become the countrys largest selling food and beverage companies. One of the largest multinational investors in the country, PepsiCo has established a business which aims to serve the long term dynamic needs of consumers in India. PepsiCo India and its partners have invested more than U.S.$700 million since the company was established in the country in 1989. In India, PepsiCo provides direct employment to 4,000 people and indirect employment to 60,000 people including suppliers and distributors. PepsiCo Indias expansive portfolio includes iconic refreshment beverages Pepsi, 7 UP, Mirinda and Mountain Dew, in addition to low calorie options- Diet Pepsi and 7Up Light; hydrating and nutritional beverages such as Aquafina drinking water, isotonic sports drinks Gatorade, and 100% natural fruit juices and juice based drinks Tropicana, Tropicana Twister and Slice. Our local brands Lehar Evervess Soda, Dukes Lemonade and Mangola complete our diverse spectrum of brands. PepsiCos snack food company, Frito-Lay, is the leader in the branded potato chip market and was amongst the first companies to eliminate the use of trans fats and MSG in its products. It manufactures Lays Potato Chips; Cheetos extruded snacks, Uncle Chipps and traditional namkeen snacks under the Kurkure and Lehar brands. The companys high fibre breakfast cereal, Quaker Oats, along with Lehar Lites, low fat and roasted snack options enhance the choices available to the growing health and wellness needs of our consu mers. Frito Lays core products, Lays, Kurkure, Uncle Chipps and Cheetos are cooked in Rice Bran Oil to significantly reduce saturated fats and all of its products contain voluntary nutritional labeling on their packets. The group has built an expansive beverage, snack food and exports business and to support the operations are the groups 43 bottling plants in India, of which 15 are company owned and 28 are franchisee owned. In addition to this, PepsiCos Frito Lay snack division has 3 state of the art plants. PepsiCos business is based on its sustainability vision of making tomorrow better than today. Our commitment to living by this vision every day is visible in our contribution to our country, consumers, farmers and our people. SWOT ANALYSIS Coca Cola Co. Pepsi Co. Strengths Established Market Share Well Established Network Parle brands acting as Substitutes Regional Presence of some Brands Strengths Market presence felt by customers. Increasing influence and identification. Strong promotional Campaign In touch with customer Weakness Alienation of Bottlers Not in touch with Customers Weakness Smaller Market Share Other brands are not very popular (except Pepsi and Mirinda) Opportunities Regaining Previous Market Share by promoting parle brands Opportunities Can gain a large Share in Existing Market while Coca Cola consolidates its position. Threats Pepsi co, the biggest competitor Pepsi cos ability to judge the market mood accurately. Threats Coca Colas change in strategy which will be taking away the advantage. Coca cola ability to bring about price war. SWOT ANALYSIS FOR THE INDUSTRY SWOT stands for Strengths Weakness Opportunities Threats SWOT analysis is a technique much used in many general management as well as marketing scenarios. SWOT consists of examining the current activities of the organization- its Strengths and Weakness- and then using this and external research data to set out the Opportunities and Threats that exist. Strengths: Strong and well differentiated brands with leading share positions. Brand portfolio includes both global Unilever brands and local brands of specific relevance to India. Consumer understanding and systems for building consumer insight. Strong RD capability well linked with business. Integrated supply chain and well spread manufacturing units. Distribution structure with wide reach, high quality coverage and ability to leverage scale. Access to Unilever global technology capability and sharing of best practices from other Unilever companies. High quality manpower resources. Weaknesses: Limited success in changing drinking habits of people. Complex supply chain configuration, unwieldy number of SKUs with dispersed manufacturing locations. Price positioning in some categories allows for low price competition. Threats: Low priced competition now present in all categories. Changes in fiscal benefits. Unfavorable raw material prices in sugar, aluminum, commodity etc. Opportunities: Market and brand growth through increased penetration especially in rural areas. Brand growth through increased consumption depth and frequency of usage across all categories. Upgrading consumers through innovation to new levels of quality. Leveraging the latest IT technology. COCA-COLA PROFILE REVIEW OF LITERATURE The Coca-Cola Company (NYSE: KO) is the worlds largest manufacturer, distributor, and marketer of non-alcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups. Based in Atlanta, Georgia, KO sells concentrated forms of its beverages to bottlers, which produce, package, and sell the finished products to retailers. The Coca-Cola Company operates in over 200 countries and sells over 400 different products, including the world-famous Coca-Cola and Sprite lines of soft drinks. KO faces several challenges today. An increased consumer preference for healthier drinks has resulted in slowing growth rates for sales of carbonated soft drinks (abbreviated as CSD), which constitutes 74% of KOs sales. KOs profits are also vulnerable to the rising costs for the raw materials used to make drinks such as the corn syrup used as a sweetener, the aluminum used in cans, and the plastic used in bottles. Additionally, as food retailers continue consolidating, theyre gaining more power to negotiate for lower prices, decreasing KOs price flexibility. Despite these challenges, Coca-Cola has remained highly profitable. Though the non-CSD market is growing quickly, the traditional CSD market is still much larger in terms of both revenues and volume. The size and variety of KOs offerings in the CSD category, coupled with the unparalleled brand equity of the Coca-Cola trademark, has allowed KO to maintain its share of the large, high-margin CSD market. At the same time, KO has responded to consumers changing tastes and begun launching new, non-CSD alternatives. History and Corporate Overview The Coca-Cola Company traces its origin to 1884, when an entrepreneur named John Stith Pemberton concocted a cocaine-infused wine for sale in the U.S. A non-alcoholic version, called Coca-Cola, was introduced in the following year in response to new laws prohibiting alcoholic beverages, and the company was officially incorporated in 1888 in Atlanta, Georgia. The entire Coca-Cola system is divided into two parts: the Coca-Cola Company and its bottlers. KO manufactures concentrates and syrups for its beverages, which it then sells to bottlers for packaging and distribution. KO owns all the rights for its brands, which include some of the worlds most popular non-alcoholic beverages, though it does grant bottlers some rights as part of its bottling agreements. In addition to manufacturing the concentrates, KO is also primarily responsible for marketing its brands, which includes running advertising and promotional campaigns. Bottling companies are generally independent of the Coca-Cola Company, though some are either partially or completely owned by KO. KO is now one of the largest corporations in the world, with a global workforce of over 90,000 and revenues of $28.8 billion in revenues in 2007. Over the years, the brand equity of the Coca-Cola trademark, as well as that of other KO-produced brands, has established KO as a prominent figure in the non-alcoholic beverage industry and allowed the company to keep both revenues and profits high. Sales and income data, in millions 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Net sales $20,857 $21,742 $23,104 $24,088 $28,857 Net income (profits) $4,347 $4,847 $4,872 $5,080 $5,981 Units sold, in billions 19.4 19.8 20.6 21.4 22.7 Bottlers Coca-Cola holds controlling and noncontrolling interest in 64% of its worldwide bottlers Coca-Cola holds controlling and non controlling interest in 64% of its worldwide bottlers. Bottling and canning companies are typically separate from the Coca-Cola Companys main concentrate manufacturing business. However, KO does maintain ownership interests in many of its bottlers, ensuring that the relationship between the two parts of the Coca-Cola system remains close. Some of the Coca-Cola Companys principal bottlers are: Coca-Cola Enterprises (CCE) (NYSE: CCE), which is the largest member of the Coca-Cola bottling network by volume. CCE accounts for 80% of all domestic Coca-Cola sales and 18% of all sales worldwide. KO retains a 35% share of CCE stock, as well as two of its thirteen board seats. Coca Cola Femsa S.A.B. de C.V. (KOF) (NYSE: KOF), the second-largest bottler in the Coke system, produced 2 billion unit cases of beverages in 2007. KO owns 32% of Coca Cola Femsa S.A.B. de C.V. (KOF), which has a strong presence in Central and South America. COCA COLA HELLENIC BOTTLING CO (CCH) S.A. (NYSE: CCH) is KOs fourth-largest bottling company, selling 1.81 billion cases in 2007. CCH has a large market presence in Europe, Asia, and Africa with its operations spread among 26 different countries. KO currently owns 23% of CCHs stock. Products The Coca-Cola Company produces over 400 brands of non-alcoholic beverages, including carbonated and non-carbonated beverages, such as ready-to-drink juices, coffee drinks, tea and bottled water. Of these over 400 brands, there are more than 2,600 different varieties. Most of KOs beverage portfolio is composed of CSD, though the company has been expanding into the non_CSD category in response to a shift in consumer demand and a greater emphasis on healthy options. Carbonated Soft Drinks Carbonated soft drinks are the single largest component in the Coca-Cola Companys collection of beverages, accounting for around 74% of total volume sold in 2006. Within the CSD category, KO offers other sugared drinks and diet drinks. Of all CSD sales, beverages bearing the Coca-Cola or Coke trademark make up 55% of total volumes. Some of the Coca-Cola Companys major CSD offerings include: Coca-Cola Diet Coca-Cola Sprite Fanta Barqs Root Beer Coke Zero Introduced in 2005, Coke Zero is the most significant of KOs new innovations. This beverage is marketed as a calorie-free version of Coca-Cola Classic, omitting the diet label in an attempt to appeal to new demographics. This brand alone accounted for nearly on third of all 2006 growth for beverages bearing the Coca-Cola trademark. Most of KOs carbonated soft drinks come in several varieties with different flavors, caloric values, etc. KO also offers energy drinks such as TaB and Full Throttle, which are carbonated but are aimed at different demographics, putting them in a special category of their own. Non-carbonated Soft Drinks The remaining 26% of KOs total volume is composed of non-carbonated soft drinks, which include a variety of beverages such a fruit juices, waters, sports drinks, and teas. This non-CSD segment has been showing higher growth rates than the CSD category, resulting from higher demand for healthy alternatives to traditional CSD. Among KOs significant non-CSD beverages are: Dasani bottled water Glaceau Vitamin Water POWERade sports drinks Minute Maid and Minute Maid To Go juices Nestea Fuze Healthy Infuzions Odwalla Juice drinks Within the non-CSD category, bottled waters like Dasani and Spring! by Dannon are showing the highest rates
Friday, January 17, 2020
There are many elements within an organization that can ensure its success, two of which are the training and the development of its employees. Training and developing employees effectively would provide all employees at all levels the tools and information they will need to perform their jobs successfully within the company. Implementing effective employee development methods can be a benefit and can ensure that changes in the daily routine are accomplished. Programs can be made available to meet the needs of the company with the involvement of the human resources department. These programs are very important for the development and training of the career minded employee. Role of Training in an OrganizationÃ¢â¬â¢s Development DeCenzo and Robbins (2007) indicate that employee training is the Ã¢â¬Å"present-oriented training that focuses on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s current jobs.Ã¢â¬ Ã This indicates that developing employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge and skill set is a key factor in assisting employees in performing their job functions more effectively. While organizational development is contingent on how employees will perform in their daily job functions, employee training offers the opportunity to further develop the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude, skill set, knowledge, and reactions to possible stressors. When workers become open to new training techniques and become more experienced in performing new job requirements the company benefits along with the employee. Employee training aids in more viable production, and even though employee training can cost an organization financially the long-term effects of properly training its employee is more valuable to the organization than the overall cost it incurs. The company can further the development of its employees by providing additional training which puts value in the employees personal stock, increases the talent pool and increases the duties the employee can perform. Employee Development Methods and Benefits According to DeCenzo and Robbins (2007) career-oriented training assists companies by focusing on an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s personal growth. These types of methods consist of assistant-to positions, job rotation, committee assignment, and off- the-job development. The assistant-to positions method assists an employee who is seeking a management position. The method involves providing the employee with the opportunity of working side-by-side with experienced managers. Working as an assistant to a manager provides much needed experience in various activities and the opportunity to perform duties at a higher caliber. Employee development by implementing the job rotation method assists in cross-training employees in various positions within the company. This method offers employees an opportunity to sharpen skills in various positions. Job rotation consists of two forms of rotations; one form is referred to as the vertical rotation which consists of promoting an employee to a new position. The second form is called the horizontal rotation which provides employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s an opportunity to perform duties in various positionsÃ within the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s daily operations. Job rotations can be extremely beneficial because they can increase an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s skill set within the company, allowing them to have hands on knowledge of the daily operations of many job positions (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2007). Committee assignments are another method of employee development. Committee assignments benefit both the company and employees as it permits an employee to develop his or her skill set by watching other employee, it aids in the investigation of organizational issues, and assists in the organizational decision making process (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2007). The committee assignment can also help in develop employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s skills. Assigning employees to permanent committee assignments can assist the company in the decision-making processes as well as researching long-term goals. The off-the-job method of employee development consists of simulation exercises, seminars, lecture courses, and outdoor training that the employee would be involved in. Simulations are beneficial because they provide each employee the opportunity to be involved in a realistic work experience by completing certain work-related exercises. These exercises consist of role playing, case studies and games based on decision making (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2007). Simulations are beneficial because they can prepare employees with possible ways to handle stressful situations in the workplace with co-workers and in customer service situations. Seminars, lecture courses, and outdoor training are other kinds of employee development. Seminars and lectures benefit a company by helping employees develop and acknowledge the analytical and conceptual abilities they have concerning the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s profession. There are various methods of putting on lectures and seminars. These methods are via distance learning and a less cost-efficient method of using the Internet. Outdoor training is beneficial to an organization as it teaches employees team building skills. An employee performing several physical challenges in the wilderness is what the outdoor training entails. Performing these physical challenges helps organizations understand how they will respond under pressure, and how they work as a team. These challenges empower employees to work together as a team and itÃ encourages employees to build relationships by accomplishing these stressful challenges within a group setting. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEE AND ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT To allow companies to focus on making improvements, management must focus on the importance of developing a relationship between the employee and organizational development. According to DeCenzo & Robbins, Ã¢â¬Å"Organizational development consists of addressing changes within the organization.Ã¢â¬ (2007). Organizational and employee development is important when implementing new processes and procedures within a company. To perform new processes, management will need to train department employees on new production methods and the procedures and skill sets to perform these new processes. To accomplish these processes the company and employees will have to adjust to operational changes. Human resources management will first need to identify these changes and create training programs to improve the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s skills on the new processes. Human Resources ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢s Role in Career Development Human resources managementÃ¢â¬â¢s role in career development has increased of late. To assist employees in achieving their career goals, human resources management strives to provide employees with the tools needed to accomplish these goals. The current career development programs of the Human resources management department help HRM give employees the self-confidence to further their education. This is done by communicating the plans and goals, tuition reimbursement, growth opportunities, and scheduling educational classes. Developing employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s careers is extremely beneficial to the company. Developing an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s career helps to retain and promote highly talented employees within the company along with assisting women and other minorities by giving them the opportunities to grow within the organization. It will also help to create cultural diversity in the workplace while improving the quality and performance of the employees work skills. (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2007). Creating and implementing a career development plan will help human resources management deliver the organizations main goals in attracting,Ã retaining, and promoting employees within the company. PERSONAL CAREER DEVELOPMENT REFLECTION My personal career development involves successfully completing my education by earning my degree in Business Management focusing on Human Resources Management. I have a great career currently with a company that supports my desire to earn a degree and has encouraged my efforts and has promoted me as I have progressed in my knowledge and abilities. I see my career in five years with this same organization, which offers me the ability to continue with my education and also continually offers career oriented training through my employer. My employer has promoted me as I have advanced in my educational efforts, and encourages all of its employees to further their education. They provide great benefits and a 401(k) along with profit sharing, so this is a company that I plan to utilize my degree with. My companyÃ¢â¬â¢s career developments opportunities will be sufficient because I currently monitor the Human Resource needs in our office and as our office grows, my duties will continue to grow, and as my knowledge expands, I will be more valuable to my company. My company believes in investing in its employees, offering seminars, online training programs, and promoting from within. My company is constantly offering trainings to keep all employees up to date on our job functions, and invests in updating software and computers to ensure we have the tools to do our jobs. The company that I work for has proven that it is committed to developing and promoting talented and career minded employees. I believe that when a company offers employees the opportunity to advance and that company invests in its employees, the employees have a duty to give their all to the company. CONCLUSION The human resources managementÃ¢â¬â¢s role to career development and employee involves many steps. These steps consist of many beneficial methods of training employees while helping develop their career. The growing relationship between employees and organizational development involves educating employees on changes in the organizational process. HumanÃ resources managementÃ¢â¬â¢s role in career development is providing employees with the tools to successfully reach their goals and career achievements and to develop additional skill sets and gain more knowledge to become a well-rounded and more seasoned employee who can function in any job within the company. Resources DeCenzo, D.A., & Robbins, S.P. (2007). Fundamentals of Human Resource Management (9th ed.) . Retrieved from https://portal.phoenix.edu/classroom/coursematerials/hrm_300/20110322/
Thursday, January 9, 2020
In chemistry, a multiple bond is a chemical bond where two or more electron pairs are shared between two atoms. Double and triple bonds are multiple bonds. In a double bond, four bonding electrons participate in the bond rather than two electrons in a single bond. Double bonds are found in azo compounds (NN), sulfoxides (SO), and imines (CN). The equal sign is typically used to denote a double bond. A triple bond involves six bonding electrons. The triple bond is drawn using three parallel lines (Ã¢â° ¡). The most common triple bond occurs in alkynes. Molecular nitrogen (N2) is an excellent example of a compound with a triple bond (NÃ¢â° ¡N).Triple bonds are stronger than double or single bonds. Source March, Jerry (1985). Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Structure (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-85472-7.